Upton, Massachusetts real estate & homes | 13 Juniper Road

May 4, 2015 by  
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http://www.HallmarkSothebysRealty.com – Upton, Massachusetts is a town of approximately 6000 residents located in the Boston metro west area. For more than 100 years, many Upton farmers …
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Hank explains the extremely complex series of reactions whereby plants feed themselves on sunlight, carbon dioxide and water, and also create some by products we’re pretty fond of as well….

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25 Responses to “Upton, Massachusetts real estate & homes | 13 Juniper Road”
  1. Boston says:

    Basically the video in text, hopefully to further your understanding.

    Requires water (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and light.
    Roots of plants absorb water and transport it to the leaves through xylem,
    CO2 enters the plant (while O2 exits) through microscopic pores in leaves
    called stomata, and individual photons are absorbed from the sun in the
    plant by the pigment chlorophyll.
    **It is important that O2 levels remain low (explained later) for the
    Calvin Cycle (Stage 2)
    Inside the cell of plants are plastids called chloroplasts, which contain
    thylakoids (which store chlorophyll), which contain lumen inside and Stroma
    outside; stacks of thylakoids are called grana.

    Light Dependent Reactions (Stage 1)
    PS II (wavelength p680)
    -Photons strike the chlorophyll in Photosystem 2 (PS II) and an electron
    absorbs the energy and becomes excited (photoexcitation), but has nothing
    to do with this energy.
    -The electron travels from PS II (1st protein complex of 4) along the
    Electron Transport Chain (via mobile electron carriers) to harness the
    energy; across a series of reactions the electrons lose their energy.
    -The energised electrons from PS II that were picked up by electron
    carriers are transported to the 2nd protein complex, the Cytochrome Complex.
    -The cytochrome complex stands in between PS II and PS I (which are all
    embedded in the thylakoid membrane), and uses the lost energy from the
    electrons to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid.-Now missing an
    electron, the chlorophyll molecule will split a H20 molecule in cooperation
    with PS II to steal its electron and replenish the one it lost, the
    by-products of this process are hydrogen ions (single protons) and oxygen.
    **By-product of oxygen is the reason behind the survival of living
    organisms.
    -Protons accumulated from the splitting of H2O and via the cytochrome
    complex now in the thylakoid then move towards the enzyme ATP Synthase,
    which uses that energy to pack an inorganic phosphate (Pi) onto ADP to
    create ATP.

    PS I (wavelength p700)
    The ‘tired’ electrons becomes reenergised by some photons as it reaches
    Photosystem 1 (PS I) and travels on another electron carrier, where all of
    the energy is used to help make NADPH (similar to ATP) by an enzyme, which
    combines 2 electrons and 1 Hydrogen ion with NADP+. (NADP+ + 2 e- + 1 H+ =
    NADPH).
    **Products of light dependent reactions: Chemical energy in the form of ATP
    and NADPH, as well as the by-product O2.

    Light Independent Reactions/Calvin Cycle (Stage 2)
    **Doesn’t require light energy from photons, uses energy derived from ATP
    and NADPH to fuel processes
    Carbon Fixation (1st phase of Calvin Cycle)
    -Begins in the Stroma (empty space of chloroplast). Involves fixing a CO2
    molecule onto Ribulose-Biphosphate or RuBP (the starting and end point of
    the ‘cycle’), with the help of an enzyme called RuBisCo (which converts
    inorganic carbon into organic carbon), which causes it to become unstable.
    -So this new 6-Carbon chain has to break apart, creating 2 molecules of
    3-Phopshoglycerate, which occurs to 3 molecules of RuBP (explained later).
    **If RuBisCo reacts with O2 instead of CO2, it creates a toxic by-product
    known as phosphogycolate (process of photorespiration) believed to alter
    enzymatic functions.

    Reduction (2nd phase)
    -ATP combines a phosphate group onto the 3-Phosphoglycerate molecules and
    then NADPH packs some electrons, creating 2 molecules of Glyceraldehyde
    3-Phosphate (G3P).
    -G3P is a high-energy, 3-carbon compound that plants can convert into many
    carbohydrates such as glucose, or cellulose or starch.

    Regeneration (3rd and last phase)
    -9 ATP molecules and 6 NADPHs are required to convert the 3 RuBPs started
    with into 6 G3Ps, however only 1 G3P can leave the cycle – with the other 5
    G3Ps needed to regenerate the original 3 RuBPs, completing 1 round of the
    cycle.
    **G3P is considered the ultimate product of photosynthesis as the glucose
    gained from it is the energy used by all cells.

  2. Hugh G. Rection says:

    In your animations, can you start to label the different things? They’re
    kinda hard to follow when I have no idea what any of the littler orbs
    represent..

  3. Connor Kamp says:

    I understand a lot of you are preparing for mid-terms, so I have put
    together a study guide. Enjoy.

    Photosynthesis study guide
    Photosynthesis equation:
    6CO2 + 6H2O —-> C6H12O6 + 6O2

    Where: CO2 = carbon dioxide
    H2O = water
    Light energy is required
    C6H12O6 = glucose
    O2 = oxygen

    Light dependent reactions
    Require water, light and carbon dioxide
    CO2 enters the plant through the stomata
    Plant absorbs photons from the sun using the pigment “clorophyl”
    Inside the chloroplasts there are things called thylakoids, which have the
    lumen inside the structure and the stroma outside the structure
    It all starts in photosystem II
    Photons strike the clorophyl and excite the electrons in the clorophyl
    Missing an electron, the chlorophyll will split a H20 molecule and steal
    its electron. It leaves the Hydrogen inside the thylakoid, floating around,
    while the oxygen exits the membrane.
    One of the electron breaks away from the clorophyl and immediately hops
    onto a special thing called an electron transport protein.
    The transport protein then transports the electron to the second protein
    complex, the Cytochrome complex.
    The cytochrome complex uses some of the energy from the electron to pump
    more hydrogen protons into the thylakoid.
    The hydrogen protons, now inside the thylakoid, are brought into the ATP
    synthase. The ATP synthase packs the Hydrogen proton onto the ADP making ATP
    The original electron, now completing its journey, is moved into PSI where
    it is reenergized by a photon. The Re energized electron then moves into
    the NADP+ Redyuctase where all of its energy is used to make NADPH out of 2
    electrons and 1 hydrogen ion along with NADP+
    The NADPH, along with the ATP’s, then moves into the second leg of
    photosynthesis, the light independent reactions, called the calvin cycle.

    Light independent reactions
    The first part occurs in the stroma and is called carbon fixation. It is
    called this because this is where a CO2 molecule binds with a Molecule of
    Ribulose Bisphosphate. This is done by an enzyme called rubisco.
    Rubisco, which was originally designed to harvest inorganic carbon from the
    atmosphere and then convert it to organic carbon, is actually not very good
    at its job. The RuBisCo would accidentally bind the Ribulose bisphosphate
    with oxygen more than half of the time, creating a toxic by product.
    When the rubisco works correctly, it will slam a CO2 molecule into ribulose
    bisphosphate, which will then become incredibly unstable. The only way to
    keep the new molecule stable is to split it inhalf, making 2 molecules of
    Phosphoglycerate. This whole process must be done to 3 molecules of RUBP.
    In stage 2, the Phosphoglyverate needs more energy so some ATP somes by and
    adds a phosphate group, and then some NADPH adds some electrons. This
    process creates 2 molecules of G3P.
    G3P, the final product of photosynthesis can then be easily converted to
    many different molecules, the most important of which is glucose. However,
    the plant needs 5 of these G3P’s to replenish the electrons lost and to
    replenish the original 3 RUBPs. This last phase is called regeneration. 

  4. extremeriga98 says:

    All i wanted to do is to pass my bio exam whis is religion involved in
    this why just why

  5. Aulla Aljubori says:

    this thing is destroying my brain i hate BIOOOOOOOOOOOO 

  6. Anaf Mujeeb says:

    People. Science and Religion goes together. God created us..but through the
    process of evolution. Am i the only one who thinks that this makes sense ? 

  7. RedOranda says:

    This is an educational video for people that are just trying to pass their
    science exam, and here are all these religious and atheist douchebags
    arguing about who’s right and who’s wrong like any of you have proof of
    what you believe. No one can prove God’s existence just like no one can
    prove chickens came first before the eggs or vice versa. How do you know
    Jesus isn’t real or is real? How did the first form of life came to
    existence? How do you diss a religious figure when you claim they don’t
    exist? Where did energy come from? I mean you can’t create or destroy it.
    Where did we come from? Some of you refer to god as He, how do you know
    it’s a man? None of you can answer these questions without real evidence,
    don’t give me a link, or a book, or your opinion because they’re all
    man-made. So shut the fuck up about whether Jesus really exist or how dumb
    God is or how he doesn’t exist or science explains everything because it
    doesn’t. People just believe in what they cannot explain, so stop dissing
    other people’s belief because you disagree because even if you disagree,
    you can’t explain your reasons either. That’s why it’s called a religion,
    it’s a belief that something exist or doesn’t exist. You believe in it
    because that’s all you can do. I’m not atheist, I’m not religious. But I
    respect what you believe in because even I cannot provide you evidence on
    why I think you’re wrong. Stop bringing up religion to a topic that isn’t
    about religion. Go find a Jesus video or an atheist video, or a satan
    video.

  8. dc2008242 says:

    I came to learn a little bit more about photosynthesis…. I see a bunch of
    people complaining about religion & science, I mean really??? WHAT DOES
    RELIGION HAVE TO DO WITH PHOTOSYNTHESIZING?!????!?!?

  9. Rasta Dave says:

    Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8: https://youtu.be/sQK3Yr4Sc_k

  10. Jorge Padua says:

    I don’t know how this complexity is evidence for intelligent design. Why
    would an intelligent designer make everything so unnecessarily complex and
    extremely inefficient? RuBP is extremely inefficient, is your intelligent
    designer stupid or non-existent? 

  11. Apoorva Sirigineedi says:

    EW! CHEMICALS ARE SO GROSS!!
    (so is the grade going to be on my bio test tomorrow)

  12. Phalhell says:

    Does anyone discuss the process of fotosynthese here?
    

  13. Tony Chen says:

    9:28 *shows empty page accidentally* *oops*

  14. Sean Mason says:

    to the religon bs athiesm flame war happening belowe just SHUT THE FUCK
    UP!!!! can’t we all get along and have a civil debate in which people take
    turns

  15. João Loureiro says:

    O meu entretenimento de fim-de-semana!!! As minhas próximas 5 aulas
    teóricas condensadas em 13 minutos de grande qualidade! Fantástico!

  16. Iwave says:

    I have finals tomorrow… I’m fucked. 

  17. kani a says:

    why do you need 9 molecules of ATP (12:10) if you’re only making *6*
    3-carbon G3Ps?

  18. Twang wwfa says:

    >inserts another starter topic for flame war here

  19. Dafne Gonzalez says:

    Talk slower please. 

  20. CARLA du Plooy says:

    i love your videos!! it helped me pass my tests.. Please don’t stop. I need
    a video about stoichiometry please??

  21. Jacob Thomas says:

    I would trade Hank Green for all of my professors

    Thanks for the awesome video!

  22. Tori Vouk says:

    As sad as it is, my teacher never teaches us this information. She
    generally just skims over it and then gives us a bunch of papers to
    “review” which only confuses me more. I don’t hate bio, I just wish I could
    understand it better. I’m sure I would enjoy bio if I had a teacher like
    hank haha

  23. Gene Glagolev says:

    Am i the only one who watches these for genuine entertainment?

    **cricket cricket**

  24. fanboyspemdas says:

    @ 1:06 HE SAYS GO WATCH THE RESPIRATION VIDEO BACKWARDS! WE ALL THOUGHT IT
    WAS JUST A JOKE BUT IT’S ACTUALLY A CRYPTIC MESSAGE!!!!!
    @4:10 ON THE RESPIRATION VIDEO THERE IS A B IN THE “KREB’S CYCLE”
    AND B BACKWARDS IS A 3(if you ignore the line)
    3 –> ILLUMINATI CONFIRMED!!!!!!!!!

  25. Adriana Espinosa says:

    Can you make a Crash Course on Chemosynthesis?

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